Journal Summaries of Skinner and Behavioral Analysis

Journal Summaries of Skinner and Behavioral Analysis

Hegde, M.N. (2009). Meaning in behavioral analysis. Journal of behavioral analysis, 5: 146-166
The article discusses the meaning in language. The author observes that meaning is an abstract construct hidden in speech. It points out that Skinner’s observations is that natural science can not be enough basis for explaining the meaning in language; behavioral analysis is the sound tool that can explain what is the meaning in a circumstance. The article postulates that meaning is the process of creating cohesiveness between precursors, the verbal manners and the implications that come after the behavior. The antecedents refer to the precursor of the verbal behavior.

The situation prior to the verbal behavior is a paramount construct in explaining the meaning. The author observes that to understand better what a character wants to put forth in his or her verbal behavior; it is crucial to analysis situations preceding the behavior. The verbal refers to the technique a party uses to convey his message to the desired recipient; it can also be referred to as a channel of communication. Verbal behavior is a crucial tool in explaining the meaning in behavioral science as the author postulates.

The last aspect, which is crucial in deriving meaning from language, is the consequences that come after the verbal behavior. The consequences that follow the behavior can be cues to deriving the desired meaning of the sender of a message; the author observes meaning is an abstract construct because it is neither an entity of the mind nor a function of a language.

Different languages can be used to explain a similar idea and portray the same meaning to the recipients of the verbal behavior. Meaning is not a mental entity either, unless the sender verbalizes effectively what his or her message is different recipients of the message could have varied understanding of the same verbal behavior; hence meaning is not a mental entity as the author observes.

Smith, G.N, Morris, K.E & Altus, E.D. (2005) B.F Skinner’s contributions to applied behavioral analysis. The behavioral analyst, 28: 99-131
These authors engage primarily in the analysis of skinner’s contribution to applied behavioral analysis. They observe that Skinner is the originator of the field of behavioral analysis. The authors put across that Skinner’s work in this field falls into five categories. The first category is the style and content of his science. Style and science refers to the constructs and constituents of his work which emphasize on looking at language as a behavioral science.

The second aspect that the authors look into is his explanation of typical and atypical human behavior. Typical human behavior is the normal human behavior, for example, use of language in communication. Atypical human behavior refers to cues that humans may use to make their actions clearer; its other name is verbal behavior. They also look at the implications he drew from behavioral science from his applications, for example, they observe the cues to the meaning which a sender of a message may use to make it more understandable to the recipients.

They also look into skinner’s description of possible application of behavioral science; they state that the most paramount field of application of behavioral science is the field of psychology. They also point out Skinner’s personal application of behavioral science in human and non human behavior. The authors observe that Skinner’s contributions address all the seven facets of behavioral science analysis. They observe him as a key pillar in the genre of behavioral science analysis in the field of psychology. Although Skinner did not leave behind any publication detailing him as the founder of behavioral analysis, the authors observe that he is nonetheless the father of behavioral analysis in psychology.

Michael, J. & Sundberg, M.L. (2001). The benefit’s of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism. Behavioral modification, 25(5): 698-724
These authors look in the application of Skinner’s behavioral science in the treatment of children with autism. They observe that there are considerable gains in the treatment there is the use of Skinner’s analysis of language in verbal behavior, in the analysis. The authors observe that the approach in the treatment of children with autism involves the use of motivation, descriptive variables and consequences of the verbal behavior.

Skinner postulates seven operants to explain his contributions in behavioral analysis, which the authors observe, is useful in treatment of children with autism. The authors observe that constructive use of each operant can create an efficient treatment of children with autism as the authors note. They state that the basis of the treatment is the development of each operant in Skinners behavioral analysis. This can correct the hindered development and achieve the desirable cognitive ability from the children.

They observe that Skinner played a paramount role in the advancement behavioral psychology. His seven operants are effective in autism treatment and is arguably a key figure in the development of behavioral psychology. The current advances in the behavioral techniques for treatment of autism are built on his postulations.

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