Why GMOs should be tested for safety and foods containing GMOs

Study Level:Specialized
Page Count:10
Number of sources:6
Topic:Why GMOs should be tested for safety and foods containing GMOs
should be labeled
Order Number:9372
Details:GMO Research Paper Outline Thesis: Research into the safety
and stricter regulation must be imposed on Genetically modified
organisms, or GMOs, because little in know about the long term affects
they have on natural life and the environment. I. What is a
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)? a. The definition of a GMO
according to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is any living
organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material
obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. II. Why do
Scientists Create GMO foods? a. Scientists make advances in
agriculture, altering crops in a variety of ways to produce desired
results. i. Scientists have created GMO foods to alter and enhance the
nutritional value of food. 1. For example, scientists created Golden
rice that produces beta carotene (vitamin A) for poor, malnourished
countries like the Philippines. ii. Scientists create GMO foods to
extend shelf life. 1. The Flvr Savr tomato was created to delay the
ripening process, and have longer shelf life. iii. Plants are altered
to be resistant to certain types of herbicides. 1. The first crop to
be resistant to glyphosate (RoundUp) was soy. a. Monsanto is the
company that held the patent for glyphosate as well as engineering
crops resistant to it. b. (Argument) Economical concerns arise like
the massive biotech companies like Monsanto own and possess
intellectual property rights on the seeds. a. Other crops that are
“roundup ready† are maize (corn), sugar beets, sorghum, canola,
alfalfa, and cotton. i. Genetically modified crops have become the
norm in the United States. For example, in 2010, 70% of all the corn
that was planted was herbicide-resistant; 78% of cotton, and 93% of
all soybeans. Also coca plants have been either created or naturally
evolved glyphosate resistant strains. c. (Argument) GMO plants could
cross over to organic plants and contaminate the genes. d. Animals are
modified to create enhanced animal products. i. Currently no GMO
animals are approved for consumption. ii. Animal products from GMO
animals however, are created everyday. 1. rBGH (recombinant bovine
somatotropin), or bovine growth hormone, is used on cows to create
more milk. 2. Rennet is an enzyme that used to be procured from the
forth stomach of calves to coagulate cheese, but it is now created
from GMO bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. iii. A large percentage of
byproducts of GMO crops are fed to livestock. iv. GMO salmon called
AquAdvantage are almost approved for human consumption. 1. The fish
grow all year long instead of only spring and summer. 2. Reach
maturity at 16 – 18 months instead of 3 years. e. (Argument) GMO
animals could compete with wild animals in nature and wipe out the
wild animals. i. This is the “Trojan gene† theory regarding the GE
salmon. III. There are many controversies surrounding GMO foods. a. It
is unknown if there is any long term affects of consuming GMO foods,
and more studies should be done to prove their safety. i. For example,
DDT and other pesticides were once thought to be completely safe,
until later it was discovered that they can cause serious birth
defects and other reproductive harm. IV. Labeling should be mandatory
a. Labeling is voluntary in the US and other counties. i. They should
be required to label ALL GMOs in food as it is our right as consumers
to know if our food has been bio engineered.

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